к вопросу о когнитивных способностях животных...
"Causal Reasoning in Rats"
Science, Feb. 2006
Abstract: Empirical research with nonhuman primates appears to support the view that causal reasoning is a key cognitive faculty that divides humans from animals. The claim is that animals approximate causal learning using associative processes. The present results cast doubt on that conclusion. Rats made causal inferences in a basic task that taps into core features of causal reasoning without requiring complex physical knowledge. They derived predictions of the outcomes of interventions after passive observational learning of different kinds of causal models. These competencies cannot be explained by current associative theories but are consistent with causal Bayes net theories. http://www.sciencemag.org/cgi/content/abstract/311/5763/1020http://elementy.ru/news/430136
Легендарный попугай Алекс, не только понимающий вопросы, заданные на языке, но и дающий на них ответы - тоже на языке (английском). Вопросы на сообразительность и счет.
Researchers explore whether parrot has concept of zerohttp://www.world-science.net/exclusives/050701_parrotzerofrm.htm
....The story began when researchers started testing Alex to see whether he understood small numbers, between one and six. Zero wasn’t expected of him. The researchers would lay out an array of objects of different colors and sizes, and asked questions such as “what color four?”— meaning which color are the objects of which there are four.
Alex performed well on this, with no training, for dozens of trials, the researchers recounted. But then he balked. Alex started ignoring questions, or giving wrong answers, seemingly deliberately. He seemed to enjoy the experimenters’ frustrated reactions, they said.
There was evidence, they added, that his stubbornness stemmed from boredom with the rewards he had been getting for right answers. The researchers found some more interesting toys to give as rewards. After two weeks of obstructionism, Alex grudgingly returned to the game, though he occasionally seemed to lapse back.
One of these apparent lapses occurred one day when an experimenter asked Alex “what color three?” Laid out before Alex were sets of two, three and six objects, each set differently colored. Alex insisted on responding: “five.” This made no sense given that the answer was supposed to be a color. After several tries the experimenter gave up and said: “OK, Alex, tell me: what color five?”
“None,” the bird replied. This was correct, in that there was no color that graced exactly five of the objects. The researchers went on to incorporate “none” into future trials, and Alex consistently used the word correctly, they said.
“We cannot determine what cognitive process led to this behavior,” the researchers wrote. “We suggest only that his action, occurring soon after a period of noncompliance, resulted from a lack of interest in the given task and was a possible attempt to make the procedure more challenging.”
The Journal of Comparative Psychology, May 2005 Number comprehension by a grey parrot (Psittacus erithacus), including a zero-like concept
The Journal of Comparative Psychology, 2006 Feb Grey Parrot (Psittacus erithacus) numerical abilities: addition and further experiments on a zero-like concept
Алекса можно увидеть
Quicktime video http://www.alexfoundation.org/alextheparrot.mov