March 10th, 2006



найдена еще одна ожившая "окаменелость"...на этот раз млекопитающее.

Rodent had been thought to have died out 11 million years ago
Science, March 2006

"It's the first time in the study of mammals that scientists have found a living fossil of a group that's thought to be extinct for roughly 11 million years. That's quite a gap....It looks like possibly one of the things that's been changing in family is improved cutting of vegetation. But over 11 million years you'd expect some differences in the structures."

А ихтиостегу лишили статуса переходной формы от рыб к тетраподам и "приравняли" к белке-летяге (эволюционный тупик).

The "four-legged fish" Ichthyostega is not the "missing link" between marine and land animals, but rather one of several short-lived "experiments". This is what scientists from Uppsala and Cambridge universities maintain in an article in the latest issue of the scientific journal Nature.


Э. Шредингер "Мое мировоззрение"

"Что такое жизнь? Физический аспект живой клетки" (10,6 Мб)


Обезьяны и человек: гены почти одни и те же, но экспрессируются очень по-разному...

Why we differ from our primate cousins

same 1056 genes from humans, chimps, orang-utans and rhesus macaques. The researchers used the chip to measure the activity level of each of those genes in the four species. Any given pair of species differed in activity levels for 12% to 19% of the 907 genes for which they had good data for all four species
The analysis also revealed many genes whose activity level has stayed constant over the 70 million years since the common ancestor of the four species, presumably because these are essential genes in which any deviations would be detrimental to the organisms

Подробнее: Nature, March 2006

"As we elucidate the complex molecular machinery that controls gene expression, our ignorance of its role in evolution is becoming increasingly alarming"

на эту же тему
"Онтогенез, эволюция и гены" Л.И. Корочкин (член-корр РАН)


исследования некоторых особенностей зрительного восприятия на примере искусства

отдельные главы из книги
Рудольф Арнхейм "Искусство и визуальное восприятие"

особо отмечу гл. про развитие зрительного восприятия у детей
"Почему дети рисуют таким способом?"

отличная статья на эту же тему:
мы не замечаем ошибок художников в передаче деталей сцены. Глаза пользуются упрощенной физикой мира в процессе восприятия изображений.

Nature, March 2005: "The artist as neuroscientist"

Although we rarely confuse a painting for the scene it presents, we are often taken in by the vividness of the lighting and the three-dimensional (3D) layout it captures. This is not surprising for a photorealistic painting, but even very abstract paintings can convey a striking sense of space and light, despite remarkable deviations from realism.
The rules of physics that apply in a real scene are optional in a painting; they can be obeyed or ignored at the discretion of the artist to further the painting's intended effect. Some deviations, such as Picasso's skewed faces or the wildly coloured shadows in the works of Matisse and other Impressionists of the Fauvist school, are meant to be noticed as part of the style and message of the painting.
There is, however, an 'alternative physics' operating in many paintings that few of us ever notice but which is just as improbable. These transgressions of standard physics — impossible shadows, colours, reflections or contours — often pass unnoticed by the viewer and do not interfere with the viewer's understanding of the scene.




Один из ведущих генетиков Дж. Шапиро убежден, что клетка обладает способностью к генной инженерии

Сайт со статьями и уч. материалами:

James Shapiro Chat:
How molecular biology opens up a 21st Century view of evolution (2003)


Отличный сайт зрительных иллюзий! (см. также
by Akiyoshi Kitaoka.

Warning: This page contains some works of "anomalous motion illusion", which might make sensitive observers dizzy or sick. Should you feel dizzy, you had better leave this page immediately

Любопытная статья: "скрытые" визуальные образы (в данном случае слова), которое сознание не успевает заметить - тем не менее воспринимаются зрительной системой. Примечательно то, что возбуждаются области, работающие именно во время чтения: т.е. различение характера образа производится автоматически.

"Seeing is not perceiving" (Nature Neuroscience, 2001)
study reports unconscious activation of occipital and frontal cortex by masked visual stimuli, showing that activity in these areas may be insufficient for awareness

Despite not being perceived, masked words (versus blanks) reliably activated a large area of left fusiform gyrus and left precentral sulcus...These areas are part of a distributed network known to be associated with reading. Thus, components of the reading system for words were activated by visual stimuli of which the subjects were unaware. This is an exciting result, as it suggests that despite the usual close correlation between activity in ventral visual cortex and visual consciousness, ventral visual cortex activation can also occur without conscious reportability.

Постоянно обновляемый сайт "Cognitive Daily" посвящен вопросам восприятия