April 25th, 2006

homuncul

БИОЛОГИЯ

дискуссионная статья contra- генетического детерминизма и редукционизма...

by Richard C. Strohman (emeritus professor of Molecular and Cell Biology at the University of California, Berkeley):

The trouble with the extended theory of the gene is that genetic elements, while critical, are only one aspect of biological regulation. They cannot, in themselves, specify details of organismal phenotype, including complex diseases like sporadic cancer and cardiovascular diseases. To be sure, there are cases in which genes may be said to "cause" attributes of an organism, but these are rare; in the realm of human diseases they account for about 2% of our total disease load.
For the most part, complex attributes . . . phenotypes of organisms . . . are not caused by genes even though genes are the ultimate agents used to create phenotypes. But if genes don't determine us, if our disease causality cannot be located in genetic agents alone, if developmental processes characterized by high fidelity adherence to species form cannot be reduced to genetic programs, if the source of evolutionary change is not traced solely to random genetic mutation, then what does determine us? Where is disease causality located, where and what is the nature of programmed growth and development in living organisms, and what is the creative source of new morphology and function acting as substrates for natural selection? In short, if the program for life is not in the genes . . . and organisms are clearly programmed . . ., then where is the program?

from a chapter in "Promoting Human Wellness: Frontiers for Research, Practice and Policy" (2000, University of California Press):
GENETIC DETERMINISM AS A FAILING PARADIGM IN BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE


см. также
Does science have enough knowledge about DNA to be able to predict and master the effects of gene transfer?


Сайт, посвященный критике генетического редукционизма
"Genetically Engineered Food - Safety Problems"

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Интересные мысли по этому поводу можно найти в нобелевской лекции лауреата за 2001 год Leland H. Hartwell (for discoveries of key regulators of the cell cycle). Он пишет, что его интересует, как связаны генетическая вариативность и фенотип.
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Leland H. Hartwell, Nobel lecture, 2001 (pdf)

NewScientist: "Depression genes differ in men and women"